place special emphasis on the World War II period and on the occupation. 107 Many writers did not survive the war, among them Krzysztof Kamil Baczyński, Wacław Berent, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Tadeusz Gajcy, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, Stefan Kiedrzyński, Janusz Korczak, Halina Krahelska, Tadeusz Hollender, Witold Hulewicz, Ferdynand Antoni Ossendowski, Włodzimierz Pietrzak, Leon Pomirowski, Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmajer and Bruno Schulz. 140 a b c d Salmonowicz 1994,. . The Germans had almost certainly realized the full scale of the Polish underground education system by about 1943, but lacked the manpower to put an end to it, probably prioritizing resources to dealing with the armed resistance. 9 39 42 By late 1940, no official Polish educational institutions more advanced than a vocational school remained in operation, and they offered nothing beyond the elementary trade and technical training required for the Nazi economy.
95 For the most part, closing underground schools and colleges in the General Government was not a top priority for the Germans. 23 25 Most of the important art pieces had been "secured" by the Nazis within six months of September 1939; by the end of 1942, German officials estimated that "over 90" of the art previously in Poland was in their possession. Wstępny raport o stanie wiedzy (Losses of Libraries During World War II within the Polish Borders of 1945. 240 (in Polish Cholewa-Selo, Anna (2005 Muza i Jutrzenka. Melchior Wańkowicz wrote about the Polish contribution to the capture of Monte Cassino in Italy. 7 Immediately following the invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Nazi German government implemented the first stages (the "small plan of Generalplan Ost.
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151 a b Madajczyk 1970,. . Warsaw: Czytelnik Phayer, Michael (2001 The Catholic Church and the Holocaust, Indiana University Press, isbn Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1997 "Polish Collaboration", Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, McFarland Company,. . 162163 (in Polish) Kiriczuk, Jurij (2003, April 23). 115 All of these activities were supported by the Underground State's Department of Culture. 299300 a b Poles: Victims of the Nazi Era, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, archived from the original on, retrieved a b c d e f g h i j k l m Krauski 1992,. . 150151 Madajczyk 1970,. . Independent Poland lasted for only 21 years before it was again attacked and divided among foreign powers. The Canadian Foundation for Polish Studies of the Polish Institute of Arts Sciences.
221261 (in Polish) Burek, Edward (ed.) (2000 "Sonderaktion Krakau in Encyklopedia Krakowa, Kraków, PWM. (1997 The Nazi Persecution of the Churches, Regent College Publishing, isbn Cornis-Pope, Marcel; Neubauer, John (2004 History of the Literary Cultures of East-Central Europe, John Benjamins Publishing Company, isbn Davies, Norman (1996 Europe: A History, Oxford University Press, isbn Davies. 7 In March 1940, all cultural activities came under the control of the General Government's Department of People's Education and Propaganda ( Abteilung für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda whose name was changed a year later to the "Chief Propaganda Department" ( Hauptabteilung Propaganda ). 104 Under German occupation, the professions of Polish journalists and writers were virtually eliminated, as they had little opportunity to publish their work. 190 a b Hempel 2003,. . 72 73 Some writers, such as Władysław Broniewski, after collaborating with the Soviets for a few months, joined the anti-Soviet opposition. The Soviet Union had to temporarily give up the territorial gains it made in 1939 due to the German invasion of the Soviet Union, but permanently re-annexed much of this territory after winning it back in mid-1944. Polish Universities During the Second World War, Encuentros de Historia Comparada Hispano-Polaca / Spotkania poświęcone historii porównawczej hiszpańsko-polskiej. 48 53 In Toruń, all Polish monuments and plaques were torn down.
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Druga wojna światowa Archived at the Wayback Machine, Encyklopedia PWN, Retrieved on (in Polish) Mirosław Adam Supruniuk, Malarstwo polskie w Wielkiej Brytanii - prace i dokumenty Archived at the Wayback Machine, Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Retrieved on vies 2005,. . 46 Wehrmacht soldiers destroying Polish government insignia in Gdynia, September 1939 Poles were forbidden, under penalty of death, to own radios. 48 Soon after the occupation began, most libraries were closed; in Kraków, about 80 of the libraries were closed immediately, while the remainder saw their collections decimated by censors. 7 Much of the German policy on Polish culture was formulated during a meeting between the governor of the General Government, Hans Frank, and Nazi Minister strumpfhosen sex gloryhole nrw
of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels, at Łódź on Goebbels declared that "The. 171173 Madajczyk 1970,. . Every day, pupils have to study in several shifts. 38 In the General Government, the remaining schools were subjugated to the German educational system, and the number and competence of their Polish staff was steadily scaled down. 85 Overall, in that period in the General Government, one of every three children was receiving some sort of education from the underground organizations; the number rose to about 70 for children old enough to attend secondary school. The index of banned authors included such Polish authors as Adam Mickiewicz, Juliusz Słowacki, Stanisław Wyspiański, Bolesław Prus, Stefan Żeromski, Józef Ignacy Kraszewski, Władysław Reymont, Stanisław Wyspiański, Julian Tuwim, Kornel Makuszyński, Leopold Staff, Eliza Orzeszkowa and Maria Konopnicka. 72 73 They included Jerzy Borejsza, Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński, Kazimierz Brandys, Janina Broniewska, Jan Brzoza, Teodor Bujnicki, Leon Chwistek, Zuzanna Ginczanka, Halina Górska, Mieczysław Jastrun, Stefan Jędrychowski, Stanisław Jerzy Lec, Tadeusz Łopalewski, Juliusz Kleiner, Jan Kott, Jalu Kurek, Karol Kuryluk, Leopold. Odzyskiwanie zabytków, Tygodnik Przegląd,. 112 Polish music, including orchestras, also went underground. Polish clergy and religious leaders figured prominently among portions of the intelligentsia that were targeted for extermination. 88 In Warsaw, there were over 70 underground schools, with 2,000 teachers and 21,000 students. 91 Throughout Poland, many other universities and institutions of higher education (of music, theater, arts, and others) continued their classes throughout the war.